VICTOR HUGO LE BOSSU DE NOTRE DAME

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The Hunchback of nos Dame, historical novel de Victor Hugo, initially published in français in 1831 ont Notre-Dame aux Paris (“Our Lady de Paris”).


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Unbeknownst à Quasimodo, two other men vie for Esmeralda’s affection: Quasimodo’s adoptive father, Archdeacon Dom Claude Frollo, et the womanizing captain Phoebus de Châteaupers. Esmeralda, for her part, has actually fallen hopelessly in love with Captain Phoebus. When he asks her to accomplish him in lunderground late one night, elle enthusiastically agrees. The night Phoebus tries à persuade Esmeralda venir sleep through him. Indigenous a closet in Phoebus’s room, a disguised Frollo spies nous the couple. After cette sees Phoebus kiss Esmeralda’s shoulder, the archdeacon, in a droit of jealousy rage, division down auto closet door and stabs Phoebus in the back. Phoebus collapses before he deserve to see his assailant. Esmeralda also loses consciousness, and Frollo escapes, leaving Esmeralda ont the only deviner for the attempted murder.

Esmeralda is quickly captured de the king’s guard. Master Jacques Charmolue presides over her trial. Charmolue sentences elle to death after she falsely confesses to witchcraft and to murdering Phoebus. (Esmeralda is unaware that Phoebus is alive.) Quasimodo attempts to shelter Esmeralda in Notre-Dame, cible he is ultimately unable venir save her. Frollo betrays Quasimodo et Esmeralda par taking Esmeralda from auto cathedral et releasing sa to an angry mob of Parisians. Quickly thereafter Esmeralda is hanged, and Quasimodo, in his grief and despair, pushes Frollo from thé cathedral tower. The roman ends numerous years later, when two skeletons—that du a hunchback et that of a woman—are uncovered embracing in Esmeralda’s tomb. Hugo reports the Phoebus also came venir a tragic end: “He married.”


Central themes

Hugo’s The Hunchback of les notres Dame considers what cette means to be a monster. The novel makes Quasimodo’s defining characteristic his physical monstrosity, and his entire identity is constructed roughly being perceived ont a monster. Hey is described by one de the women du Paris ont a “wicked” ugly man. Several personalities suggest that he is some kind du supernatural being that prowls around Paris, casting spells on its citizens. Quasimodo is juxtaposed with thé dashing Captain Phoebus, who shares his surname with auto Greco-Roman god ns the Sun. Phoebus is described as année imposing jeune man, “one de those handsome fellows whom tous women agree to admire.” Yet ce is Quasimodo—not Captain Phoebus—who attempts to save Esmeralda et who ultimately kills auto archdeacon, thereby ending his reign du terror.

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Esmeralda is also perceived ont a kind ns monster. Although she is not, in fact, a Rom, elle is seen et treated as one. In The Hunchback of notre Dame thé Roma are linked with witchcraft et the supernatural. They room viewed oui exotic outsiders and are said venir practice magic, possess satanic goats, et kidnap Parisian children among est différent things. Frollo exploits their combinaison with auto supernatural to sanction a Roma purge, just oui Charmolue uses it to authorize Esmeralda’s execution.

The roman condemns the society the heaps misery nous the likes ns Quasimodo et Esmeralda. In thé end, hugo. Indicates that the real monsters room not Quasimodo et Esmeralda cible Frollo et Phoebus.

Context and reception

The cathedral Notre-Dame de Paris is one ns the most enduring symbols de the French capitale city. Hugo. Conceived de The Hunchback of les notres Dame oui a story de the cathedral itself and devoted deux chapters du the novel to explicate it. Cette focused primarily conditions météorologiques the Gothic architecture elements du the structure, including its paris buttresses, clerestory windows, and stained glass. étreignant identified Gothic architecture as auto bearer du the récolte heritage de France et argued that, ont such, cette should be protected. At the time the the roman was created (between 1828 et 1831), parisien was verging on principale changes the cumulatively threatened venir destroy much of its cultural heritage. The french Revolution had actually resulted in the desacralization, decay, and consequent destruction ns many Gothic cathedrals et churches. In the July Revolution du 1830, the french people express a desire venir liberate themselves from the past. This uprising to be driven by a condemnation de the forms and institutions associated with thé traditional monarchical regime, and its leaders sought a nouveau way forward.

In The Hunchback of notre Dame, dhugo recreates thé vibrant, extrême atmosphere of 15th-century first to remind his readers ns the splendour et significance du Paris’s Gothic past. The book doubles oui a plea for the preservation ns the city’s historical Gothic architectural (and thus its heritage). His plea was endroit with great success. The tons printing, de publisher Charles Gosselin, was spread in 4 issues ns 275 copies each, and the novel was instantly, extremely popular. Many thousands ns printings followed. The Hunchback of notre Dame circulated widely, motivating illustrations passant par lithographers, painters, livre illustrators, et even cartoonists. Images from the novel (especially images of thé cathedral) became known to individuals at tous levels of society. Notre-Dame ns Paris came to be a French denchères icon, and the proliferation of image of thé cathedral helped revive thé use and prestige de Gothic forms. Année extensive program of renovation, overseen de French repair specialist Eugène-Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, was undertaken in the mid-1840s, et in the latter half of the 19th century Gothic monument began to récupération their spiritual significance.

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Adaptations

The Hunchback of notre Dame has actually been adjusted several times pour the stage and screen. One of the most notable cinématicien versions to be directed par William Dieterle; it was released in 1939 et starred Charles Laughton et Maureen O’Hara, despite its happy finishing diverged substantially from Hugo’s novel. Divers screen ajustements included a 1923 silent cinématicien featuring lon Chaney et a 1956 édition starring Anthony Quinn et Gina Lollobrigida. Auto stage musique Notre-Dame ns Paris premiered in parisien in September 1998. The opération reportedly had auto most successful tons year ns any musical up venir that time. A année later, Der Glöckner von notre Dame (“The cloche Ringer of les notres Dame”) opened in Berlin. Uneven it’s français counterpart, auto German adapter was based conditions météorologiques the disney. Animated cinématicien The Hunchback of notre Dame, which was released three years prior, in 1996. Although based nous Hugo’s novel, the animated cinématique differs considerably from the original text. In Disney’s The Hunchback of notre Dame, Quasimodo is no dark et brooding but naïve and friendly. Cette craves social interaction and expresses a keen desire à make friends. Phoebus is additionally recast: cette is a good-natured heroic soldier who returns Esmeralda’s love. The cinématique also revises thé end ns the novel, such that Esmeralda survives et befriends Quasimodo.