Fêtes Religieuses Catholiques Et Leur Signification

1. Introduction2. Method3. Aurum: the giv par excellence parce que le Mayan deities4. Auto jewels de the Lord5. A gold reward parce que le chastity6. Trading gold à la relief7. Abordage and conclusion"/>
ArcheoSciences
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The objective de this work-related is à understand the recadrer significance ns gold, particularly in the use de jewels parce que le the decoration de devotional sculptures, à la a population ns Mayan beginning that currently lives in thé State ns Campeche, Mexico. We study three boîte of cult images of great reputation amongst Catholics: une from Campeche City et two rather from la campagne areas. Auto method largely consisted in recovering data from historic documents, life testimonies and oral traditions, et carrying out année analysis of religious festivities. The récolte value given à these objects passant par people makes it necessary à recognize them as Communal récolte Heritage. Seul through joint travail and cooperation between tholic communities, auto Mexican Government, Church and society in general, conditions météorologiques will it is in able à guarantee your security and preservation.

Vous lisez ce: Fêtes religieuses catholiques et leur signification


L’objectif ns l’étude est de comprendre ns signification culturelle ns l’or convectif la population original Maya qui vit actuellement dans l’état aux Campeche, au Mexique, surtout en cette qui se rapporter à l’utilisation du bijoux convoque la décoration du sculptures ns dévotion. Trois images du culte, qui profitez-en d’excellente appel parmi das catholiques, ont été étudiées : ns située dedans la ville ns Campeche und les autre deux à lintérieur des cités rurales. Ns méthode comprenez vous l’étude aux documents anciens, les récolte ns témoignages et traditions orales en directement et une analyse des fêtes religieuses. Ns valeur culturel que les gens donnent à celles objets exige nom de famille soient reconnus prendre plaisir un héritage du la communauté culturelle. Seul une mouvement conjointe rang la la coopération entre les communautés catholiques, le gouvernement mexicain, l’église et la société en général, nous garantira leur secret et de toi préservation.


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Entrées d’index


Mots-clés :

bijou en or, groupe ethnique maya, image du dévotion, religiosité populaire

Keywords:

devotional image, jaune jewel, mayan ethnic group, renowned religiosity

Géographique :

Mexique
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Plan


1. Introduction
2. Method
3. Aurum: the pitié par excellence parce que le Mayan deities
4. Thé jewels du the Lord
5. A golden reward parce que le chastity
6. Trading gold parce que le relief
7. Abordage and conclusion
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Texte intégral


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1. Présenter

1The old Mayan civilization flourished in south-eastern Mexico, in année area including auto current states ns Campeche, Yucatán, and Quintana Roo (Yucatan Peninsula), Chiapas and Tabasco, extending to Nicaragua in quartier général America. Cette was characterized passant par a polytheistic religieux in i beg your pardon gods were classified according to different categories, together as: the creation of the Universe; stars and planets (e.g. Sun, moon, Venus); natural phenomena (e.g. Rain, wind, thunder); pets (e.g. Jaguar, snake); tree (maize, à la example); good et evil; and death. Both historical documentary sources et archaeological evidence prove that gold was taken into consideration a very significativement gift venir these deities.

2With thé Spanish conquest of america during the 16th century, an unknown god et new saints came to these lands et a process of syncretism du Mayan et Catholic beliefs was initiated (López, 1994). This phenomenon is montrer clairement until today in auto living manifestations of regional popular piety. In Campeche State, we can toujours witness the thousand years old relationship in between humans and the sacred, using auto precious metal par excellence ont a mediator. Ce is worth stating that today, Campeche State has actually a arme à feu population de 754,730 inhabitants and that 13.2% of it has auto native language as the main one.

3Addressing this topic, auto objective de the present work is à understand the recadrer significance de gold, specifically in the use de jewels for the decoration of devotional sculptures, parce que le the population du Mayan ethnic beginning that currently lives in this part of Mexico. Nous specifically learned the cases of three du the cult image that ont the meilleur reputation amongst Catholics: the le noir Christ of the Parish of saint Roman auto Martyr, in Campeche ville (the capital of thé state); the Immaculate brouillon of auto Virgin Mary, in the bourgade of Pomuch; and the lord of Health, in the town of Hecelchakán. The locale communities contributed de largent to buy high-quality crowns, necklaces, bracelets, crucifixes, et other golden objects à adorn these sculptures.

4Finally, conditions météorologiques raise some point of discuter and a conclusion focused on the cultural importance of this belles of objects, et the necessity to recognize them ont Communal recadrer Heritage.

2. Technique

5The first phase of our study included documentaire research in order venir collect les données on the importance of gold for the ancient Mayan society, consulting auto works of J.E. Thompson (1982), M. Du la Garza (1990) et M.O. Marion (1994), 3 prestigious researchers du this area. Auto archaeological proof pertaining to this subject was bring away from the results published passant par C. Coggins (1994) et M. Schmidt (1994). Conditions météorologiques also the evaluation chronicles du the history ns the Church in colonie times, written passant par Diego López de Cogolludo (17th century, reprinted 1996), which aided us à select the three boîte of cult images à la this study.

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6The field was thé longest et most important part of this investigation, which began after nous decided venir examine one caisse from Campeche City et two others from towns located nous the side du the road that connects the states de Campeche and Yucatan. Cette consisted, firstly, in thé observation and description of the henn features of the sculptures, ont well oui of thé jewellery circuits électoraux of each of them. Then, conditions météorologiques registered auto calendar de religious holidays and attended to those considered thé most significant. During the festivities, nous collected informations about auto traditionstransfer in dental form, et we also obtained testimonies about the meaning du gold à la communal members.

7We climate confronted all the les données we gathered in order venir be able venir draw conclusion regarding auto current duty played par gold jewellery pour popular religiosity in auto region. Finally, nous evaluated this duty based on the Unesco definition of culture et cultural heritage.

3. Aurum: the gift par excellence pour Mayan divine beings

8The religious ideas de the ancient Mayans represented the guiding axis de their lives. They conceived a cosmos inhabited by invisible deities characterized passant par a dual personality: fussy et dangerous, cible also kind et gentle. Therefore, cette was possible pour human beings to awake their commiseration, venir avoid your attacks et receive your blessings, satisfying their needs with rituals, sacrifices et presents (Garza, 1990; Thompson, 1982).

9The henchmen objective of these rituals was venir ensure thé arrival ns the rain in order à guarantee the agricultural cycle, especially of maize, i beg your pardon was thé basis du their food et was additionally considered a holy plant. Representations ns the rain god Chac, which nous can calmer see nous the facades du the pre-Columbian ceremonial centres along thé old Camino Real, montré concern end this matter (Marion, 1994). One way venir please the sacré beings was providing them or gifts, which to be thrown into auto cenotes, the natural water deposits located in thé Yucatan Peninsula. The clearest example du this is the saint Cenote of Chichen Itza (an ancient city that reached its apogee between auto years 800 et 1100 AD), which to be used ont a an excellent receptacle for this type of artefact (Coggins, 1994; Schmidt, 1994).

10However, the la nature of this douaniers is not a thing de the past, as current examples are it was observed in Campeche State. The first one is of a carré named Hool, where the devotees ask parce que le favours to auto Virgin ns Candelaria de throwing golden jewels in a lake beside auto village. The second example is that ns the petit town ns Chuiná, in which, throughout Easter, pilgrims from different locations launch or jewels into thé Laguna du Términos, formed passant par the salt water du the Gulf de Mexico. At auto same time, lock pray venir Our Lady du Sorrows, which is best known precisely as the Virgin du Chuiná. This practice shows the syncretism de the Mayan and Catholic religions, which undoubtedly agree nous the idée of gold as an ideal present à la the deities.

4. Auto jewels du the lord

11The town and port ns San Francisco ns Campeche was created in thé year 1540 passant par the Spanish Captain Francisco du Montejo; in 1776, ce received thé title ns City, and in 1857 ce became the capitale of Campeche State (Brito, 2007).

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12Oral douaniers holds that throughout the seconde half du the 16th century a petit chapel was built passant par local people to implore God to cease the attack ns a plague du locusts. They additionally commissioned an image du Christ venir a wealthy merchant et a constant traveller, named après ansan Cano du Coca Gaitan. After cette bought thé artwork, and during the return trip, a sapin miracle happened: thé ship had actually a fast et successful travel conditions météorologiques a unstable sea, and finally a for sure arrival à Campeche on September 14 de 1565. Ce was because then that the seamen adopted him ont their pdg Saint; till today, this representation is auto most venerated statue of the Diocese ns Campeche, having auto title ns Patron heilig of toutes les personnes the residents du Campeche (Cahuich and Aguayo 1998) (Fig. 1).